Sea Ports in DMIC States Centre for Urban Research
Study of Port infrastructure pertinent to Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor includes review of port infrastructure in DMIC states, maritime investment plans and performance of major and minor ports of Maharashtra and Gujarat, review of traffic projections carried out by Ministry of Shipping.

Review of Port Infrastructure in DMIC States
The states of Gujarat and Maharashtra, being located along the Western Coast, have a coast line of 1600km and 720km length respectively, which together constitute about 31% of total coast length of the country.

Gujarat has one major port at Kandla and 40 minor and intermediate ports. Of which, 21 minor and intermediate ports are operating at present. These minor and intermediate ports are divided into ten groups viz. Mandvi Group (3 ports), Navlakhi group, Bedi group (4 ports), Okha group/ Rupen Beyt, Porbandar group, Veraval group (5 ports), Pipavav Group (3 ports), Bhavnagar Group (2 ports), Bharuch group (3 ports), Magdalla group (8 ports).

Maharashtra has two major ports of the country, Mumbai Port and Jawaharlal Nehru Port, and 48 minor ports. The minor ports of Maharashtra fall into 5 groups viz. Bandra Group (9 ports), Mora group (11 ports), Rajpuri group (9 ports), Ratnagiri group (11 ports) and Vengurla group (8 ports). At present only 8 minor ports are operating. In order to provide multi-user port facilities, Maharashtra government has decided to develop seven minor ports viz. Rewas-Aware, Dighi, Jaigad, Anjanwel (Dabhol), Alewadi, Ganeshgule, Vijaydurga and Redi. Of these, the development of Rewas-Aware, Dighi ports are already in progress through private sector participation.

Major ports of Maharashtra and Gujarat together catered to 30% of overall country's cargo handling requirements at Major Ports in 2005-06 whereas minor ports of Gujarat alone have handled over 70% of country's cargo at minor ports during the same time period.

Maritime Boards
Besides the two major ports - Jawaharlal Nehru and Mumbai - that are controlled by the Ministry of Shipping, Government of India, minor/intermediate ports of the state are managed by the Maharashtra Maritime Board (MMB).

Gujarat has only one major port in Kandla in the Gulf of Kacchh, besides the minor / intermediate ports that are managed by the Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB).

Of the minor / intermediate ports in Maharashtra, Maharashtra Maritime Board (MMB) has given priority to the development of Port Alewadi in district Thane; Port Rewas - Aware in district Raigad; Port Anjanvel (Dabhol), Port Ganeshgule and Port Jaigad in district Ratnagiri and Port Vijaydurg and Port Redi in district Sindhudurg. It has also identified a large number of other sites for the development of all weather Greenfield ports under five different locational groups - Bandra, Mora, Rajpuri, Ratnagiri and Vengurla. It also has four captive port terminals under operation by private industry houses as under:

i. Panvel (Ulwa-Belapur) operated by Gujarat Ambuja Cement Ltd.
ii. Dharmatar operated by Ispat Industries Ltd.
iii. Revdanda operated by Vikram Ispat Ltd.
iv. Ratnagiri (Pawas-Ranpar) operated by Finolex Industries Co. Ltd.
Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB) in Gujarat has been actively perusing the development of its minor / intermediate ports through the PPP and BOOT routes. In the process, large private ports have been set up at Pipavav, Hazira and Mundra, managed by Mearsk Sealand, Shell Gas & Power and Adani Ports Ltd., respectively. Besides other traffic, all three are being developed as major container handling facilities.

In addition to above, GMB has its own ports at Okha, Porbandar, Navlakhi, Rozi/Bedi, Bhavnagar, Mahuwa, Alang, Hazira and Dahej, mainly in the Gulf of Kutch and the Gulf of Cambay. It also has a large number of captive jetties and SBMs at Hazira, Dahej and Jamnagar operated by the likes of Reliance Industries Ltd., Essar Steel Ltd., Essar Oil Ltd., KRIBHCO, ONGC, IPCL, GSPC, GSPCL, etc. In the near future, GMB further proposes to develop Greenfield ports on BOOT, BOM and BOMT basis at Simar, Mithivirdhi, Vansi Borsi, Maroli, Bedi, Alang, Jageshwar (Dahej), Bhavnagar, Mahuwa, Navlakhi, Veraval and Mandvi.

In fact, of the nine mainland maritime states, Gujarat is most active in respect of development of port facilities along its 1600 km coastline. As a result, minor / intermediate ports in Gujarat handle almost 70% of total traffic handled by such ports throughout the country (104.15 million tonnes against a total of 151.14 million tonnes in 2005-06. Ultimately, GMB plans to handle 1000 million tonnes of traffic at its ports.

Major Ports in Western Region
Jawaharlal Nehru Port
Located on the Nhava and Sheva Islands in Navi Mumbai, JN Port is a specialized facility for handling container and liquid bulk traffic. Over the last five years, JNPT has embarked upon a major reorganization and expansion drive. The port, at present, has three container terminals (two of these privatized) and one oil and chemicals terminal. It has further planned to set up a much large fourth container terminal with a waterfront of more than 2 km. Jawaharlal Nehru Port is the biggest container handling port in India accounting for 58% of national container traffic.

J N Port constitutes the largest container port in the country. It handled 2.67 million TEUs (twenty foot equivalent units) in 2005-06, constituting nearby 58% of the total 4.61 million TEUs handled by all major ports in the country. Its container handling has further risen to 3.30 million TEUs in 2006-07 and with the third and fourth terminals becoming fully operational in 2007-08 and 2011-12, respectively, it is expected to achieve a handling capacity of 8 million TEUs per annum by 2016-17. The oil and chemicals traffic is handled entirely through pipelines.

Features Draft Availability in the Channel: 12.5mts, to be enhanced to 14 mts
Cargo Profile: Containers, POL
Traffic Handled in 2005-06: 37.75 Million Tonnes
Existing Capacity (31/03/06): 36.10 MTPA
Proposed Capacity Addition by 2011-12: 58.30MTPA
Total Proposed Capacity by 2011-12: 94.40 MTPA
Major Schemes envisaged at JN Port include
. Extension of Container Berth by 330M (7.2 MTPA)
. 3rd Container Terminal, recently commissioned (15.60 MTPA)
. Development of 4th Container Terminal (26.40 MTPA)
. Development of Marine Chemical Terminal (5.5 MTPA)
Mumbai Port
Mumbai Port is one of the Major Ports of Maharashtra, located close to the commercial capital of India, and provided with a natural deep harbour of 400 Sqkm. The port has three dock systems with 50 berths on the mainland. Mumbai Port handled 35.19 million tonnes of traffic in 2004-05 and 44.10 million tonnes in 2005-06. While a major part of its traffic comprises crude oil and POL, it also handles substantial quantities of dry bulk (fertilizers, FRM and coal) and container traffic. Though in decline over 2003-04 (197000 TEUs) and 2004-05 (219000 TEUs), it still handled 156000 container TEUs in 2005-06.

In order to boost its container traffic, Mumbai Port proposes to build a dedicated offshore container terminal within the next 5 years which will ensure better draught and enable it to handle upto 1.50 million TEUs per annum. Besides, in view of its location in the most congested part of metropolitan Mumbai, it proposes to build a dedicated freight line between Wadala and Kurla so that most of its incoming and outgoing traffic can be handled by rail.

Features: Draft Availability in the Channel: 9.1mts, to be enhanced to 14 mts
Cargo Profile: POL, Pulses, Sugar, Fertilizers, Electrics, Textiles, Iron and Steel
Traffic Handled in 2005-06: 44.10 Million Tonnes
Existing Capacity (31/03/06): 43.73 MTPA
Proposed Capacity Addition by 2011-12: 47.16 MTPA
Total Proposed Capacity by 2011-12: 90.91 MTPA
Major Schemes envisaged at Mumbai Port include
. Development of Off Shore Container Terminal (9.6 MTPA)
. Development of Harbour Wall berth for General Cargo (7 MTPA)
. Construction of Second Chemical Jetty for Liquid Cargo (2 MTPA)
. 5th Oil Berth at Jawaharlal Dweep-to handle Larger Tankers (17.78 MTPA)
. Captive Coal Berth at Pir Pau (5.5 MTPA)
. Dry Bulk Terminal at 16-17 Indira Dock (0.5 MTPA)
. Development of 3 Conventional General Cargo Terminals (1.5 MTPA)
. Modernization of JD - 4 Berths of POL (2 MTPA)
Kandla Port Kandla Port, build in the 1950s after the partition of the country and the Karachi Port being lost to Pakistan, is the third major port in the western region of India. The port handled 41.55 million tonnes worth of traffic in 2004-05 and 45.90 million tonnes in 2005-06, but, like Mumbai port, its main strength lies in crude oil and POL traffic.

Containers also constitute a fair part of its traffic. Kandla Port has a vast hinterland of 100,000 Sqkm stretching to Jammu & Kashmir with meter-gauge and broad gauge rail systems.

Although the port handled a mere 131,000 TEUs in 2004-05 and 148,000 TEUs in 2005-06, it has planned the development of a new container terminal, which will enable it to generate a capacity of 800,000 TEUs per annum by 2013-14.

Features: Draft Availability in the Channel: 11.7mts, to be enhanced to 14.5mts
Cargo Profile: Iron & Steel, Salt, POL, Chemicals, Fertilizers, Timber
Traffic Handled in 2005-06: 45.90 Million Tonnes
Existing Capacity (31/03/06): 46 MTPA
Proposed Capacity Addition by 2011-12: 68.40 MTPA
Total Proposed Capacity by 2011-12: 114.4 MTPA
Major Schemes envisaged at Kandla Port include
. Container Terminal at 11th & 12th Cargo Berths, being commissioned (7.2 MTPA)
. Marine Terminal at Vadinar, recently commissioned (12 MTPA)
. Construction of 13-16th Cargo Berths for Dry Cargo/ Break Bulk (8 MTPA)
. Creation of Berthing and Allied facilities near Tuna for Coal, Cement, Fertilizers, Food grains, crude/products (20 MTPA)
. Setting up off-shore liquid terminal (12 MTPA)
. Strengthening Berth Nos. 1-6 for Dry Cargo (4.2 MTPA)
In addition, Kandla Port Trust has invited Expression of Interest for developing a modern/ world-class ship-building/ repairing yard at Tuna to take advantage of availability of natural deep draft (17.5mts) and moreover, 1200 Acres of land also has been earmarked in the vicinity enabling requisite land side developments.

Private Ports In addition to the three major ports discussed above, private ports of Mundra and Pipavav are in the process of developing large container, dry bulk and liquid bulk handling capacities. The private LNG port set up by Shell Gas & Power at Hazira also proposes to build a 2 million TEU container terminal.

Major Proposed Projects for Non-Major Ports in Gujarat
. T-2 Terminal (Bulk) at GAPL (Mundra) - 3 MTPA
. Essar Captive Jetty Expansion - 10 MTPA
. Container Terminal at GAPL Mundra - 5 MTPA
. PLL LNG at Dahej - 5 MTPA
. GPPL Expansion at Pipavav - 3 MTPA
. Solid Cargo Terminal at Dahej - 5 MTPA
. Private Jetties at Bedi, Okha - 2 MTPA
. RIL additional SPMS- 20 MTPA
. Gujarat Ambuja Extension- 3 MTPA
. Gujarati Shidhi Cement- 3 MTPA
. HPPL at Hazira for Solid Cargo - 5 MTPA
. Greenfield Port at Maroli - 10 MTPA
Major Proposed Projects for Non-Major Ports in Maharashtra
. Development of All-Weather and Multi-Purpose Port at Dighi, Raigad for Dry Bulk and Container Traffic - 18.15 MTPA, 0.28 Mn TEUs
. Development of All-Weather and Multi-Purpose Port at Rewas-Aware, Raigad- 44.70 MTPA, 1.7 MTEUS
. Development of All-Weather and Multi-purpose Port at Jaigad, Ratnagiri for Coal, Bauxite Ore and Containers - 5.3 MTPA
. Development of Greenfield Port facilities at Dhamankhol Bay, Jaigad, Ratnagiri for Coal and Bulk Cargo- 6 MTPA
. Development of All-weather and Multi-Purpose Port at Vijaydurg for Dry Bulk, Container and Liquid - 75 MTPA
. Development of Captive Port Facilities at Girye Bay, Vijaydurg, Sidhudurg for Coal- 15 MTPA
. Development of All-Weather and Multi-Purpose Port at Redi for Dry Bulk, Container, Liquid - 3.3 MTPA
Projections of Port Traffic by MoS
Under its Maritime Development Program (2005), the Ministry of Shipping has planned large-scale investments for the development of ports infrastructure and enhancing their traffic handling capacities.
The MoS has also estimated that nearly 45% of container traffic handled at the major ports is likely to be moved by the rail mode. Thus, assuming that 65% of the total container volume of 20.95 million TEUs in 2013-14 is handled at ports in the western region (viz 13.62 million TEUs) and 45% of this will move by rail (viz 6.13 Mn TEUs), the container traffic alone will generate about 93 trains each way per day. This reinforces the conviction that availability of the western DFC will be absolutely essential to carry this as well as other rail borne traffic.

Review of Projections Projections of container traffic in terms of TEUs made in the JN Port study are more conservative as compared with projections made by MoS. This is so because these have been tampered with the likely growth in port capacities. Besides, an anticipated growth of 17 to 18% per annum may not be sustainable over a long term. Be as it may, in either case rapid growth in containerized as well as noncontainerized traffic is on the cards and the country's rail, port and road systems develop in tandem.

Future Prospects for Augmentation of Port Infrastructure in DMIC

Based on the review of potential for augmentation of existing ports and development of Greenfield Ports in Gujarat and Maharashtra, following port infrastructure projects are put forward for consideration under DMIC:

. Developing Greenfield Port at Alewadi / Dighi in Maharashtra.
. Developing Greenfield Ports at Maroli and Dholera and additional developments at Dahej and Hazira Ports in Gujarat.
Proper rail and road links to these ports would also need to be developed through collaboration of the various agencies concerned - State Government, Railways, NHAI and the DMIC Authority. Brief of the potentials of identified Ports, as per the assessments of maritime boards of Gujarat and Maharasthra, is as follows:

Greenfield Port at Alewadi, Thane District, Maharashtra
Alewadi port is located 60nautical miles north of Mumbai in approximate position Lat. 19°46.3' N and Long. 73°41.5' E. This site has potential for development of large port to handle all sizes of vessels. This Port is located close to the well established Tarapur Industrial Estate that comprises of engineering, chemical, textiles, paints, drugs and pharmaceutical industries. According to traffic projections carried out by Maharashtra Maritime Board, Alewadi Port has the potential to cater to traffic throughput of 8.5MTPA primarily constituting Fertilizer Material. Alewadi Port also has the potential to serve as a good feeder port for containers to supplement JNPT

Economic potential is good as there is a well established Tarapur Industrial Estate comprising of engineering, chemical, textiles, paints, drugs and pharmaceutical industries. Greenfield Port at Dighi, Raigad District, Maharashtra

Dighi Port is located at about 45nautical miles south of Mumbai and is being developed to handle panamax size vessels. Dighi Port has received environmental clearance. Tendering Process for construction of Port is underway. Government of India has accorded approval for setting up Dighi Port Based Multi Product Special Economic Zone inclusive of Free Trade Warehousing Zone.

Greenfield Port at Maroli, Valsad District, Gujarat
Maroli is situated in Valsad district at 11km from Umbergaon in South Gujarat region along the West Coast. Located at Lat 20°12'00" N and Long 72°45'00" E, Maroli offers immense opportunities for development through private sector participation. In an estimate carried out by Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB), Maroli Port has the potential to conjugate with JN Port and Mumbai Port and cater to 13.10 Mn Tonnes in 2010 primarily constituting Coal, Clinker/Cement, Containers, LNG and General Cargo. Maroli Port also has the advantage of land availability to the tune of 830 Ha, mainly owned by the Government; and connectivity to National Highway No.8 at a distance of 21km and broad-gauge rail connectivity at a distance of 9km.

GMB envisaged following facilities at Maroli:
. Lagoon Type of Harbour enclosed by Diaphragm walls for construction of Wharf
. Phase-I development is envisaged to be included with construction of berthing w
harf of 600m in water of 10m depth. It requires capital dredging.
. Estimated Project Cost for Phase-I is about INR 600 Crore.
Greenfield Port at Dholera with Investment Region
Dholera, being located at southern side of Saurashtra peninsula near Bhavnagar and in the Gulf of Cambay, with a deep draft of 15-18m and tidal amplitude of the order of 10m, offers excellent opportunity to develop it as a Port catering to deep draft vessels and also meets with the unique requirement for development of ship building/ repairing facilities. Moreover the wind and wave condition in this region is also favourable for similar business investors. GMB has short listed Dholera for development of maritime related industries in collaboration with global manufacturers in the field of ship building/repairing business.

It is proposed to develop an all-weather modern port at Dholera with industrial development in a land parcel of over 250Sqkm area. Dholera Port has the potential to cater to ship building and ship repairing industries; offers opportunity to develop berths for salt export along with new berths and jetties for catering to industrial/ manufacturing sectors such as auto/auto component, engineering etc.

Few of the proposed industrial investments at Dholera include:
. Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Ltd proposed to develop Dholera as a substitute for Pipavav and Porbandar Ports for the trades catering to and from its plant at Sutrapada in Gujarat . Proposed Cement Production facility by M/s J.K.White Cement.

GMB has proposed development of Dholera Port as an all-weather direct-berthing port with 8 dry cargo jetties, 3 liquid jetties along with a container depot. It also envisages establishment of Chemical Estate, including facilities for Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Ltd. In terms of connectivity, Dholera Port has the opportunity to get connected with the hinterland with a road linkage to Bhavnagar (11km distance) and to Ahmedabad along with provision of requisite broad gauge rail connectivity.

Development of Dahej Port, Bharuch District, Gujarat Dahej Port is being developed by Gujarat Maritime Board through joint sector participation. Review of developments at Dahej till date indicates that:
. Gujarat Chemical Port Terminal Company Limited (GCPTCL), the joint sector company that includes Government of Gujarat and state owned companies, is promoted to develop a Chemical Terminal at Dahej with a capacity to handle 1.82 Mn Tonnes of Liquid Chemicals at a total investment size of INR 850 Crore.

. M/s Petronet LNG Limited, a company promoted by GAIL, ONGC and other oil PSUs, has developed a LNG terminal that has been operational from February 2004. The planned terminal capacity is 5.0 Mn Tonnes for LNG and 3.0 Mn Tonnes of dry bulk cargo with a total investment of INR 3130 Crore.

In a demand assessment study carried out by GMB indicates that Dahej Port has potential to cater to traffic throughput of 30 MTPA in 2015. Moreover, development of Greater Dahej- Hazira Economic Zone is being contemplated, in the lines of Rotterdam, to also cater to container traffic in addition to LNG, Liquid bulk and dry bulk cargo along with multi-modal transportation facilities viz. pipelines, rail, road and coastal shipping. Moreover, this region is envisaged to have value added services such as warehousing & distribution facilities, transporters & forwarders zone, automobile exports, petro SEZ, Agro-Processing & Export Zone, Chemical Zone (basic chemicals for imports and speciality chemicals for exports).

It is identified that development of Greater Dahej-Hazira Economic Zone requires widening and strengthening of Dahej-Bharuch and Surat-Hazira roads to 4-lane divided carriageway configuration along with gauge conversion of Dahej-Bharuch and Hazira (Gothangam) - Kosad railway lines from Meter gauge to Broad gauge.